Cancers occurring in children are marked by low incidence rates, typical histologies, favourable survival in resource-rich countries, long-term survivorship issues and a range of ethical, psychological and societal concerns. These characteristics, combined with data presentation requirements unique to these cancers, make a strong case for oncologists and epidemiologists to study childhood cancers separately from other cancers.
As a part of its mission of collection and dissemination of data on cancer, IARC recognises the need for a specific approach to collecting and disseminating childhood cancer data. Following the publication of the two volumes of International Incidence of Childhood Cancer in 1988 (IICC-1)  and 1998 (IICC-2) , IARC is launching, in collaboration with IACR, the third monograph of the series. The new publication will fill the gap in the availability of international data on childhood cancer incidence, after the two previous volumes covering roughly the 1970s and 1980s, respectively.